Transition Path Sampling as Markov Chain Monte Carlo of Trajectories: Recent Algorithms, Software, Applications, and Future Outlook
Peter G. Bolhuis and David W. H. Swenson
Adv. Theory Simul. 2021, 2000237. https://doi.org/10.1002/adts.202000237
The development of enhanced sampling methods to investigate rare but important events has always been a focal point in the molecular simulation field. Such methods often rely on prior knowledge of the reaction coordinate. However, the search for this reaction coordinate is at the heart of the rare event problem. Transition path sampling (TPS) circumvents this problem by generating an ensemble of dynamical trajectories undergoing the activated event. The reaction coordinate is extracted from the resulting path ensemble using variants of machine learning, making it an output of the method instead of an input. Over the last 20 years, since its inception, many extensions of TPS have been developed. Perhaps surprisingly, large‐scale TPS simulations on complex molecular systems have become possible only recently. Other important developments include the transition interface sampling (TIS) methodology to compute rate constants, the application to multiple states, and adaptive path sampling. The development of OpenPathSampling and PyRETIS has enabled easy and flexible use and implementation of these and other novel path sampling algorithms. In this progress report, a brief overview of recent developments, novel algorithms, and software is given. In addition, several application areas are discussed, and a future outlook for the next decade is given.